An Atom is a simple generic data container for holding any type of Plain Old Data (POD). An Atom can contain simple primitive types like integers, floating point numbers, and strings; as well as structured data like lists and dictionary-like Objects. Since Atoms are POD, they can be easily copied (for example, with memcpy()) anywhere and are suitable for use in real-time code.

Every atom starts with an LV2_Atom header, followed by the contents. This allows code to process atoms without requiring special code for every type of data. For example, plugins that mutually understand a type can be used together in a host that does not understand that type, because the host is only required to copy atoms, not interpret their contents. Similarly, plugins (such as routers, delays, or data structures) can meaningfully process atoms of a type unknown to them.

Atoms should be used anywhere values of various types must be stored or transmitted. An AtomPort can be used to transmit atoms via ports. An AtomPort that contains a Sequence can be used for sample accurate communication of events, such as MIDI.

Serialisation

Each Atom type defines a binary format for use at runtime, but also a serialisation that is natural to express in Turtle format. Thus, this specification defines a powerful real-time appropriate data model, as well as a portable way to serialise any data in that model. This is particularly useful for inter-process communication, saving/restoring state, and describing values in plugin data files.

Custom Atom Types

While it is possible to define new Atom types for any binary format, the standard types defined here are powerful enough to describe almost anything. Implementations SHOULD build structures out of the types provided here, rather than define new binary formats (for example, using Object rather than a new C struct type). Host and tool implementations have support for serialising all standard types, so new binary formats are an implementation burden which harms interoperabilty. In particular, plugins SHOULD NOT expect UI communication or state saving with custom binary types to work. In general, new Atom types should only be defined where absolutely necessary due to performance reasons and serialisation is not a concern.

Index

ClassesPropertiesInstances

Classes

Atom

Class
LabelAtom
Superclass ofBool
Chunk
Literal
Number
Object
Property
Sequence
String
Tuple
URID
Vector
cType LV2_Atom

Abstract base class for all atoms.

An LV2_Atom has a 32-bit size and type, followed by a body of size bytes. Atoms MUST be 64-bit aligned.

All concrete Atom types (subclasses of this class) MUST define a precise binary layout for their body.

The type field is the URI of an Atom type mapped to an integer. Implementations SHOULD gracefully pass through, or ignore, atoms with unknown types.

All atoms are POD by definition except references, which as a special case have type 0. An Atom MUST NOT contain a Reference. It is safe to copy any non-reference Atom with a simple memcpy, even if the implementation does not understand type. Though this extension reserves the type 0 for references, the details of reference handling are currently unspecified. A future revision of this extension, or a different extension, may define how to use non-POD data and references. Implementations MUST NOT send references to another implementation unless the receiver is explicitly known to support references (e.g. by supporting a feature).

The special case of a null atom with both type and size 0 is not considered a reference.

AtomPort

Class
LabelAtom Port
Subclass oflv2:Port
In domain ofbufferType

A port which contains an Atom.

Ports of this type are connected to an LV2_Atom with a type specified by bufferType.

Output ports with a variably sized type MUST be initialised by the host before every run() to an Chunk with size set to the available space. The plugin reads this size to know how much space is available for writing. In all cases, the plugin MUST write a complete atom (including header) to outputs. However, to be robust, hosts SHOULD initialise output ports to a safe sentinel (e.g. the null Atom) before calling run().

Blank

Class
LabelBlank
Subclass ofObject
cType LV2_Atom_Object
owl:deprecated true
Deprecated

An anonymous collection of properties without a URI.

This class is deprecated. Use Object with ID 0 instead.

An Object where the LV2_Atom_Object::id is a blank node ID (NOT a URI). The ID of a Blank is valid only within the context the Blank appears in. For ports this is the context of the associated run() call, i.e. all ports share the same context so outputs can contain IDs that correspond to IDs of blanks in the input.

Bool

Class
LabelBool
Subclass ofAtom
cType LV2_Atom_Bool
owl:onDatatype xsd:boolean

An Int where 0 is false and any other value is true.

Chunk

Class
LabelChunk
Subclass ofAtom
owl:onDatatype xsd:base64Binary

A chunk of memory with undefined contents.

This type is used to indicate a certain amount of space is available. For example, output ports with a variably sized type are connected to a Chunk so the plugin knows the size of the buffer available for writing.

The use of a Chunk should be constrained to a local scope, since interpreting it is impossible without context. However, if serialised to RDF, a Chunk may be represented directly as an xsd:base64Binary string, for example:

[] eg:someChunk "vu/erQ=="^^xsd:base64Binary .

Double

Class
LabelDouble
Subclass ofNumber
cType LV2_Atom_Double
owl:onDatatype xsd:double

A native `double`.

Event

Class
LabelEvent
cType LV2_Atom_Event

An atom with a time stamp prefix in a sequence.

An Event is typically an element of an Sequence. Note that this is not an Atom type since it begins with a timestamp, not an atom header.

Float

Class
LabelFloat
Subclass ofNumber
cType LV2_Atom_Float
owl:onDatatype xsd:float

A native `float`.

Int

Class
LabelInt
Subclass ofNumber
cType LV2_Atom_Int
owl:onDatatype xsd:int

A native `int32_t`.

Literal

Class
LabelLiteral
Subclass ofAtom
cType LV2_Atom_Literal

A UTF-8 string literal with optional datatype or language.

This type is compatible with rdfs:Literal and is capable of expressing a string in any language or a value of any type. A Literal has a datatype and lang followed by string data in UTF-8 encoding. The length of the string data in bytes is size - sizeof(LV2_Atom_Literal), including the terminating NULL character. The lang field SHOULD be a URI of the form <http://lexvo.org/id/iso639-3/LANG> or <http://lexvo.org/id/iso639-1/LANG> where LANG is a 3-character ISO 693-3 language code, or a 2-character ISO 693-1 language code, respectively.

A Literal may have a datatype or a lang, but never both.

For example, a Literal can be Hello in English:

void set_to_hello_in_english(LV2_Atom_Literal* lit) {
     lit->atom.type     = map(expand("Literal"));
     lit->atom.size     = 14;
     lit->body.datatype = 0;
     lit->body.lang     = map("http://lexvo.org/id/iso639-1/en");
     memcpy(LV2_ATOM_CONTENTS(LV2_Atom_Literal, lit),
            "Hello",
            sizeof("Hello"));  // Assumes enough space
}

or a Turtle string:

void set_to_turtle_string(LV2_Atom_Literal* lit, const char* ttl) {
     lit->atom.type     = map(expand("Literal"));
     lit->atom.size     = 64;
     lit->body.datatype = map("http://www.w3.org/2008/turtle#turtle");
     lit->body.lang     = 0;
     memcpy(LV2_ATOM_CONTENTS(LV2_Atom_Literal, lit),
            ttl,
            strlen(ttl) + 1);  // Assumes enough space
}

Long

Class
LabelLong
Subclass ofNumber
cType LV2_Atom_Long
owl:onDatatype xsd:long

A native `int64_t`.

Number

Class
LabelNumber
Subclass ofAtom
Superclass ofDouble
Float
Int
Long

Base class for numeric types.

Object

Class
LabelObject
Subclass ofAtom
Superclass ofBlank
Resource
cType LV2_Atom_Object

A collection of properties.

An Object is an atom with a set of properties. This corresponds to an RDF Resource, and can be thought of as a dictionary with URID keys.

An LV2_Atom_Object body has a uint32_t id and type, followed by a series of Property bodies (LV2_Atom_Property_Body). The LV2_Atom_Object_Body::otype field is equivalent to a property with key rdf:type, but is included in the structure to allow for fast dispatching.

Code SHOULD check for objects using lv2_atom_forge_is_object() or lv2_atom_forge_is_blank() if a forge is available, rather than checking the atom type directly. This will correctly handle the deprecated Resource and Blank types.

When serialised to RDF, an Object is represented as a resource, for example:

eg:someObject
    eg:firstPropertyKey "first property value" ;
    eg:secondPropertyKey "first loser" ;
    eg:andSoOn "and so on" .

Path

Class
LabelPath
Subclass ofURI
owl:onDatatype URI

A local file path.

A Path is a URI reference with only a path component: no scheme, authority, query, or fragment. In particular, paths to files in the same bundle may be cleanly written in Turtle files as a relative URI. However, implementations may assume any binary Path (e.g. in an event payload) is a valid file path which can passed to system functions like fopen() directly, without any character encoding or escape expansion required.

Any implemenation that creates a Path atom to transmit to another is responsible for ensuring it is valid. A Path SHOULD always be absolute, unless there is some mechanism in place that defines a base path. Since this is not the case for plugin instances, effectively any Path sent to or received from a plugin instance MUST be absolute.

Property

Class
LabelProperty
Subclass ofAtom
cType LV2_Atom_Property

A property of an Object.

An LV2_Atom_Property has a URID key and context, and an Atom value. This corresponds to an RDF Property, where the key is the predicate and the value is the object.

The context field can be used to specify a different context for each property, where this is useful. Otherwise, it may be 0.

Properties generally only exist as part of an Object. Accordingly, they will typically be represented directly as properties in RDF (see Object). If this is not possible, they may be expressed as partial reified statements, for example:

eg:someProperty
    rdf:predicate eg:theKey ;
    rdf:object eg:theValue .

Resource

Class
LabelResource
Subclass ofObject
cType LV2_Atom_Object
owl:deprecated true
Deprecated

A named collection of properties with a URI.

This class is deprecated. Use Object directly instead.

An Object where the id field is a URID, that is, an Object with a URI.

Sequence

Class
LabelSequence
Subclass ofAtom
cType LV2_Atom_Sequence

A sequence of events.

A flat sequence of Event, that is, a series of time-stamped Atoms.

LV2_Atom_Sequence_Body.unit describes the time unit for the contained atoms. If the unit is known from context (e.g. run() stamps are always audio frames), this field may be zero. Otherwise, it SHOULD be either units:frame or units:beat, in which case ev.time.frames or ev.time.beats is valid, respectively.

If serialised to RDF, a Sequence has a similar form to Vector, but for brevity the elements may be assumed to be Event, for example:

eg:someSequence
    a atom:Sequence ;
    rdf:value (
        [
            atom:frameTime 1 ;
            rdf:value "901A01"^^midi:MidiEvent
        ] [
            atom:frameTime 3 ;
            rdf:value "902B02"^^midi:MidiEvent
        ]
    ) .

Sound

Class
LabelSound
Subclass ofVector
cType LV2_Atom_Vector

A Vector of Float which represents an audio waveform.

The format of a Sound is the same as the buffer format for lv2:AudioPort (except the size may be arbitrary). An Sound inherently depends on the sample rate, which is assumed to be known from context. Because of this, directly serialising an Sound is probably a bad idea, use a standard format like WAV instead.

String

Class
LabelString
Subclass ofAtom
Superclass ofURI
cType LV2_Atom_String
owl:onDatatype xsd:string

A UTF-8 string.

The body of an LV2_Atom_String is a C string in UTF-8 encoding, i.e. an array of bytes (uint8_t) terminated with a NULL byte ('\0').

This type is for free-form strings, but SHOULD NOT be used for typed data or text in any language. Use Literal unless translating the string does not make sense and the string has no meaningful datatype.

Tuple

Class
LabelTuple
Subclass ofAtom

A sequence of atoms with varying type and size.

The body of a Tuple is simply a series of complete atoms, each aligned to 64 bits.

If serialised to RDF, a Tuple SHOULD have the form:

eg:someVector
     a atom:Tuple ;
     rdf:value (
         "1"^^xsd:int
         "3.5"^^xsd:float
         "etc"
     ) .

URI

Class
LabelURI
Subclass ofString
Superclass ofPath
owl:onDatatype xsd:anyURI

A URI string.

This is useful when a URI is needed but mapping is inappropriate, for example with temporary or relative URIs. Since the ability to distinguish URIs from plain strings is often necessary, URIs MUST NOT be transmitted as String.

This is not strictly a URI, since UTF-8 is allowed. Escaping and related issues are the host's responsibility.

URID

Class
LabelURID
Subclass ofAtom
cType LV2_Atom_URID

An unsigned 32-bit integer ID for a URI.

A URID is typically generated with the LV2_URID_Map provided by the host .

Vector

Class
LabelVector
Subclass ofAtom
Superclass ofSound
cType LV2_Atom_Vector

A homogeneous sequence of atom bodies with equivalent type and size.

A homogeneous series of atom bodies with equivalent type and size.

An LV2_Atom_Vector is a 32-bit child_size and child_type followed by size / child_size atom bodies.

For example, an Vector containing 42 elements of type Float:

struct VectorOf42Floats {
    uint32_t size;        // sizeof(LV2_Atom_Vector_Body) + (42 * sizeof(float);
    uint32_t type;        // map(expand("Vector"))
    uint32_t child_size;  // sizeof(float)
    uint32_t child_type;  // map(expand("Float"))
    float    elems[42];
};

Note that it is possible to construct a valid Atom for each element of the vector, even by an implementation which does not understand child_type.

If serialised to RDF, a Vector SHOULD have the form:

eg:someVector
     a atom:Vector ;
     atom:childType atom:Int ;
     rdf:value (
         "1"^^xsd:int
         "2"^^xsd:int
         "3"^^xsd:int
         "4"^^xsd:int
     ) .

Properties

beatTime

Property
Labelbeat time
Rangexsd:decimal
TypeDatatype Property

A time stamp in beats.

bufferType

Property
Labelbuffer type
DomainAtomPort
Rangerdfs:Class
TypeObject Property

An atom type that a port may be connected to.

Indicates that an AtomPort may be connected to a certain Atom type. A port MAY support several buffer types. The host MUST NOT connect a port to an Atom with a type not explicitly listed with this property. The value of this property MUST be a sub-class of Atom. For example, an input port that is connected directly to an LV2_Atom_Double value is described like so:

<plugin>
    lv2:port [
        a lv2:InputPort , atom:AtomPort ;
        atom:bufferType atom:Double ;
    ] .

This property only describes the types a port may be directly connected to. It says nothing about the expected contents of containers. For that, use supports.

cType

Property
LabelC type
Domainrdfs:Class
Rangelv2:Symbol
TypeDatatype Property

The C type that describes the binary representation of an Atom type.

childType

Property
Labelchild type
TypeObject Property

The type of children in a container.

frameTime

Property
Labelframe time
Rangexsd:decimal
TypeDatatype Property

A time stamp in audio frames.

supports

Property
Labelsupports
Rangerdfs:Class
TypeObject Property

A supported atom type.

This property is defined loosely, it may be used to indicate that anything supports an Atom type, wherever that may be useful. It applies recursively where collections are involved.

In particular, this property can be used to describe which event types are expected by a port. For example, a port that receives MIDI events is described like so:

<plugin>
    lv2:port [
        a lv2:InputPort , atom:AtomPort ;
        atom:bufferType atom:Sequence ;
        atom:supports midi:MidiEvent ;
    ] .

Instances

atomTransfer

Instance
Labelatom transfer
Typeui:PortProtocol

A port protocol for transferring atoms.

Transfer of the complete atom in a port buffer. Useful as the format for a LV2UI_Write_Function.

This protocol applies to atom ports. The host must transfer the complete atom contained in the port, including header.

eventTransfer

Instance
Labelevent transfer
Typeui:PortProtocol

A port protocol for transferring events.

Transfer of individual events in a port buffer. Useful as the format for a LV2UI_Write_Function.

This protocol applies to ports which contain events, usually in an Sequence. The host must transfer each individual event to the recipient. The format of the received data is an LV2_Atom, there is no timestamp header.

History

Version 2.2 (2019-02-03)
  • Add lv2_atom_object_get_typed() for easy type-safe access to object properties.
Version 2.0 (2014-08-08)
  • Deprecate Blank and Resource in favour of just Object.
  • Add lv2_atom_forge_is_object_type() and lv2_atom_forge_is_blank() to ease backwards compatibility.
  • Add lv2_atom_forge_key() for terser object writing.
  • Add lv2_atom_sequence_clear() and lv2_atom_sequence_append_event() helper functions.
Version 1.8 (2014-01-04)
  • Make lv2_atom_*_is_end() arguments const.
Version 1.6 (2013-05-26)
  • Fix crash in forge.h when pushing atoms to a full buffer.
Version 1.4 (2013-01-27)
  • Fix lv2_atom_sequence_end().
  • Remove atom:stringType in favour of owl:onDatatype so generic tools can understand and validate atom literals.
  • Improve atom documentation.
Version 1.2 (2012-10-14)
  • Fix implicit conversions in forge.h that are invalid in C++11.
  • Fix lv2_atom_object_next() on 32-bit platforms.
  • Add lv2_atom_object_body_get().
  • Fix outdated documentation in forge.h.
  • Use consistent label style.
  • Add LV2_ATOM_CONTENTS_CONST and LV2_ATOM_BODY_CONST.
Version 1.0 (2012-04-17)
  • Initial release.